Videofluoroscopy Frame Rate
For Dr. Steele’s letter on the importance of videofluoroscopy frame rate, click here.
Dr. Steele is an advocate of using standardized stimuli for assessment in videofluoroscopy. Currently, there are no commercially available barium preparations designed for videofluoroscopy in Canada. However, in the United States, the industry standard has become a commercially-available 40% w/v density preparation (Varibar). To access recipes on how to make 20% and 40% w/v density barium using materials that are currently available in Canada, click here.
During her time at Toronto Rehab, Sonja Molfenter’s (now an assistant professor at New York University) research thesis focus was to quantify variability in swallowing physiology from videofluoroscopy. Dr. Molfenter’s research contributed to the publication of a new method for quantifying residue in the pharynx using pixel-based image analysis software (the Normalized Residue Ratio Scale). To access instructions and tools to measure the severity of residue in the valleculae and piriform sinuses using a new, anatomically normalized scale known as the Normalized Residue Ratio Scale (NRRS), click here.
Dr. Molfenter’s research also contributed to the development of training materials and tools to assist front line clinicians in making objective measurements of swallowing physiology from Videofluoroscopy. To access instructions and tools on using ImageJ to track and measure hyoid peak position and displacement (rest to peak) from videofluoroscopies, click here.
Maximum Pharyngeal Constriction
Dr. Steele’s research suggests that measurement of pharyngeal constrivtion on a single videofluoroscopy frame relative to a reference scalar (square length from the anterior inferior corner of the C4 vertebra to the anterior inferior corner of the C2 vertebra), is adequate for capturing variations pharyngeal constriction during swallowing across different conditions.. To access instructions and tools on using ImageJ to measure maximum pharyngeal constriction videofluoroscopies, click here.